PCB: Printed Circuit Board

ATX: Advanced Technologies Extended

ITX: Small form factor mother board

System board component


                -Expansion slots & buses

                -Memory slot and external cache

                -CPU & Socket

                -Power connector

                -On board disk connector

                -Keyboard connector

                -Integrated peripheral port & headers

                -BIOS / firmware

                -CMOS batterie

                -Front panel connector

BUS: Parallel computer system component

Northbridge: Hight speed peripheral, FSB, Video card, PCIe, processor to ram.

FSB: Front side bus

STD motherboard chipset shematic




Southbridge: All slower on-board peripheral

                                               -Audio, PCI, USB, LAN, SATA

PCI: 32 bits, 3-inch-long, 33/66 MHz, 133/266 MBps

PCI-x: 64 bits, 66/133/266/533 MHZ     4.3/2.1 GBps

PCIe: Not shared with another PCI. Star topology. 8Gbps. 22 PIN, 1X to 32X

DIMM: Dual Inline Memory Module, 168/184/240 pins

SODIMM: Laptop memory. Small outline dual inline memory module, 200/204/144/72/100pin

Pagefile.sys: Swap file on hard drive, optimised to deliver information to RAM, Virtual Memory.

Power connector: 20 pin on a motherboard

Firmware: Name of a software that is encoded in a hardware (ROM) chip.

BIOS: Basic Input Output System

POST: Power on self test

CMOS & Battery :

                -Date                    -Boot sequence                              -Time

                -Power management                    -HD configuration           -Virtualisation support

                -Memory                            -Security             -CPU setting

Front & top connector:

                -Power button                  -Drive activity light        -Power light                     

                -Audio Jack                        -Reset button                   -USB ports

DIP: Dual Inline package

PGA: Pin Grid Array

Hyperthreading: Simultaneous multithreading

MSINFO32.exe : Info about CPU & system

Memory term:

                -Parity checking & memory bank

                               -Rudimentary error checking    

                               -Detection of other memory module

                -Error checking & correction : ECC

                -Single sided memory & double sided memory

                -Single, dual & triple channel memory

                               -Solve bottleneck between RAM & CPU

                -Buffered & Unbuffered memory

                               -Registered or unregistered

                               =RDIMM     or   UDIM

Cooling tech:

                -Heat pipe

                -Peltier cooling system

                -Phase cooling device

                -Liquid helium/nitrogen


Types of memory

                -DRAM: Dynamic Random Memory

                               -SDRAM (Synchronous DRAM)

                               -SDR SDRAM (Single data rate SDRAM)

                184pin  -DDR SDRAM (Double data rate SDRAM)

                240pin  -DDR2 SDRAM (Double data rate V2 SDRAM)

                240pin  -DDR3 SDRAM (Double data rate V3 SDRAM)

                               -SRAM (static random access memory)

                               -ROM (Read Only Memory)