Memory, Motherboard and CPU Edit

PCB: Printed Circuit Board

ATX: Advanced Technologies Extended

ITX: Small form factor mother board

System board component Edit

  • Chipset
  • Expansion slots & buses
  • Memory slot and external cache
  • CPU & Socket
  • Power connector
  • On-board disk connector
  • Keyboard connector
  • Integrated peripheral port & headers
  • BIOS / firmware
  • CMOS batterie
  • Front panel connector

BUS: Parallel computer system component

Northbridge: Hight speed peripheral, FSB, Video card, PCIe, processor to ram.

FSB: Front side bus

STD motherboard chipset shematic

Chipset schematic.svg




Southbridge: All slower on-board peripheral

                                               -Audio, PCI, USB, LAN, SATA

PCI: 32 bits, 3-inch-long, 33/66 MHz, 133/266 MBps

PCI-x: 64 bits, 66/133/266/533 MHZ     4.3/2.1 GBps

PCIe: Not shared with another PCI. Star topology. 8Gbps. 22 PIN, 1X to 32X

DIMM: Dual Inline Memory Module, 168/184/240 pins

SODIMM: Laptop memory. Small outline dual inline memory module, 200/204/144/72/100pin

Pagefile.sys: Swap file on hard drive, optimised to deliver information to RAM, Virtual Memory.

Power connector: 20 pin on a motherboard

Firmware: Name of a software that is encoded in a hardware (ROM) chip.

BIOS: Basic Input Output System

POST: Power on self test

CMOS & Battery :

                -Date                    -Boot sequence                              -Time

                -Power management                    -HD configuration           -Virtualisation support

                -Memory                            -Security             -CPU setting

Front & top connector:

                -Power button                  -Drive activity light        -Power light                     

                -Audio Jack                        -Reset button                   -USB ports

DIP: Dual Inline package

PGA: Pin Grid Array

Hyperthreading: Simultaneous multithreading

MSINFO32.exe : Info about CPU & system

Memory term: Edit

  •                 -Parity

checking & memory bank

  •                                -Rudimentary

error checking    

  •                                -Detection

of other memory module

  •                 -Error

checking & correction : ECC

  •                 -Single

sided memory & double sided memory

  •                 -Single,

dual & triple channel memory

  •                                -Solve

bottleneck between RAM & CPU

  •                 -Buffered

& Unbuffered memory

  •                                -Registered

or unregistered

  •                                =RDIMM     or  


Cooling tech: Edit

  •                 -Heat


  •                 -Peltier

cooling system

  •                 -Phase

cooling device

  •                 -Liquid


  •                 -Undervolting

Types of memory Edit

  • DRAM:

Dynamic Random Memory


(Synchronous DRAM)

    • SDR

SDRAM (Single data rate SDRAM)

    • 184pin  -DDR SDRAM (Double data rate SDRAM)
    • 240pin  -DDR2 SDRAM (Double data rate V2 SDRAM)
    • 240pin  -DDR3 SDRAM (Double data rate V3 SDRAM)
  • SRAM

(static random access memory)

  • ROM

(Read Only Memory) 

Storage devices & Power supply Edit

Controller: Controller chip that control how HD operate.

HBA: Host to host bus adapter : Converting signal from the controller to the computer.

Anatomy of Hard Drive


C/H/S: Cylinder/head/Sector

Cylinder X Head = Tracks

Tracks X Sector per track = Total Sector

HDD speed: 5400/7200/10 000/12 000

SSD: Solid state drive

Hybrid drive: Dual (HD + SSD) often used data is transferred to the ssd part for faster access.

Solid Stade hybrid drive: HDD with NAND chip on board

SRT: Smart response technology: Use caching for popular data on the faster drive in a dual drive scenario.

Optical disk: Edit

                -SS = Single side                              -DS = Dual side

                -SL = Single layer                             -DL = Dual layer

  • CD                                                         650/700/800/900


  • DVD +/-R/RW                   SS,SL                     4.7GB
  • DVD -R/+R                         SS,SL                     8.55GB
  • BD -R/RE                             SS,SL                     25GB
  • BD -R/RE                             SS,DL                    50GB
  • BD -R/RE                             DS,DL                    100GB


Optical drive data rate Edit

                CD-ROM                              1X = 150 KBps

                                                               2X = 300 KBps

                                                               8X = 1.2 MBps

                               (Multiplier by data buffering)


                DVD                                      1X = 1.4 MBps

                                                               16X max speed

                BD                                          1X = 4.5 MBps  (30X the speed of cd 1X)

                                                               2X needed for commercial video playback

DVD ROM : Data encoded is unchangeable

DVD -R/+R: Write once

DVD -RW/+RW: Multiplies use

IDE PATA: Legacy

SATA 1 : 1.5 Gbps            sata 150

SATA 2 : 3 Gbps               sata 300

SATA 3 : 6 Gbps               sata 600

RAID: Redundant Array of independent disk Edit

  •                 Raid

0 : Disk stripping

  •                 Raid

1 : Disk Mirroring

  •                 Raid

5 : Redundancy with parity + speed

  •                 Raid

6 : Like 5 but it can loose 2 disk

  •                 Raid

10: 1+0 OR 0+1 (Minimum 4 disk, 50% loss for redundancy)


Sequential tape format Edit

  •                 QID                        Quarter inch cartridge                  200Kb to 1GB
  •                 DLT                        Digital line tape                              Up to 800 GB
  •                 Data8/exabyte Eight millimetre                             Up to 60 GB
  •                 DAT/DSS              Digital audio tape                           Up to 300 GB
  •                 LTO                        Linear Tape-Open                          up to 2.5 TB


Memory card format Edit

  •                 SD                          Secure Digital                                   32X24 mm
  •                 MiniSD                                                                               21.5X20


  •                 MicroSD                                                                             15X11


  •                 CF                           Compact Flash                                 36X43 mm
  •                 XD-Picture

card                                                               20X25 mm


AT power connector = Depreciated

MOLEX: Standard peripheral power connector

ATX power connector: Single 20 pin connector

ATX 12v: Needed for PCIe 4/6/8 pin


Peripheral & Expansion Edit

I/O :                       -USB card

-Firewire  IEEE 1394



Soundcard: 1/8 Jack, Legacy MIDI port & DA15

Video card: AGP, PCIe

Network Card: Fiber / RJ45 / BNC (Legacy coax)

Modem card: RJ11

Riser Card:          -NLX (New Low Profile Extended)

-AMR LNR : Multifunction card

Connector types:

-D-sub                                  D (x) = number of pin

EX: DB15

-RJ series

-RJ11 telephone port

-RJ45 Ethernet

-USB: 127 device max per/port

-1.0 = 12Mbps

-2.0 = 480Mbps

-3.0 = 5Gbps

-Support boosting/streaming/shielding/dual simplex/host control.

-IEEE 1394 Firewire

-Isochronous mode (Sync clock) 400 to 3200 Mbps

-Closer saturation (Can use full speed)

-45 watts, 30v, 1.5 amp

-Work like a network

-4.5 m (Cable length) / 100 m (fiber)

-63 devices per port


-16 Mbps

-Irda std

-Line of sight

-Less than 4 m range

-Audio / video jack




-1/8’’      3.5 mm

-Orange : Center / Subwoofer

-Green : Speaker

-Blue : Line-in

-Pink : Microphone

-Gray : Side L&R

-Black : Rear L&R


Video display cables & connectors

-DVI: Digital Video Interface

-DVI-I : Digital & Analog

-Single link          WUXGA               1920X1080

-Dual link             WQXGA               2048X1536

DVI-D: Digital only

-Single link          WUXGA               1920X1080

-Dual link             WQXGA               2048X1536

DVI-A: Analog

Single & dual link used for resolution

-HDMI: Use dual link + audio + higher frame rate

-1.3: HD-DVD & Blue Ray

-1.4: CEC (remote control data) + Ethernet + anti vibration lock type E

-120 hz at 1080p

-3D & 4K at 30hz


-4K 60 hz

-21:9 format

-32 channel audio

-2020 color space

-2.0a: HDR = Hight Dynamic Range

-Component video

-1 uncompressed signal & 2 compressed

-COAX RGB color coded (BNC in broadcast quality)

-Luma = Y = Uncompressed signal (Colorless)

-Pb         Pr          

-Composite video : RCA ( Yellow jack)


-VESA : Video Electronics Association

-Lower voltage than HDMI

-33m cable max length

-20 pin

-MDP : Mini DisplayPort


-4x PCIe 2.0 + DisplayPort

-3m cable / 60m optical

-20 Gbps

-18v 9.9w

-DAISY chain via hub up to 6 level

Display devices

LCD: Liquid crystal display

-TN : Twisted Nematic

-Better for gamming

-Low angle of vision

-Less expensive

-Less color accurate

-React a lot to touch


-Cost more

-Better colors

-Less reactive to touch

-Wide angle of vision

-Require more power

-More expensive

Pixel addressing

-Active matrix

-Transistor keep its charge

-Crisper image

-Larger viewing angle

-Need more power

-Passive matrix

-Low angle of vision and response time

-Muddy look

-Dual scan

-Variation of passive matrix

-Screen split in half for dual scan

Backlight source

-Fluorescent bulb


-Plasma display

-Don’t work well in altitude

-600 hz refresh rate

-Soap opera effect

-Better for sport and high motion

-OLED Display

-High contrast ratio

-No backlight

-AMOLED or PMOLED (for passive)

-Less power than LCD exept when full white

-Thinner than LCD


-Touchscreen capability


-1.5X more subpixel

-Projection system

-Ceiling / table mounted

-Rear projection


-3d need 2X lumen

-Widescreen need 2X lumen

Low light environment

-1300 home / 2500 office

Medium light environment

-1500 to 3500 home / 3000 to 4500 office

STD light environment

-4000 to 4500 home / 5000 to 6000 office

-HID: Hight density lamp

-WARNING the lamp need cooling down, do not unplug the device to turn if off.

Adjusting display setting

-Refresh rate = NB of rescan per second

-Frame rate = NB of different image per second


-LCD have native resolution

Multiple Display

-Need the same driver if multiple adapter

-WDDM ( Windows )

-Enhanced graphic

-Virtual video memory

-Pre-emptive task scheduling

-Sharing of direct 3D

=== Advanced Video Resolution Concept ===

  • SVGA                                    800X600 16 color
  • XGA                                      800X600 64k color  / 

1024X768 256 color

  • WXGA                                  1280X800
  • SXGA                                    1280X1024
  • WSXGA                                1680X1050
  • UHD                                      3840X2160
  • WHUXGA                            7680X4800



Custom configuration

Standard Thick client

-Standard configuration on witch custom configuration are build

-For standard user

Graphic & CAD / CAM Design workstation

-CPU enhancement : Up to 12-16 cores

-Video enhancement

-Maximized RAM

Audio/Video editing workstation

-Video enhancement: CUDA \ OPEN GL

-Specialised audio : Midi / digital

-Specialised Hard drive 7K + RPM SATA 6Gbps

Virtualisation workstation

-CPU enhancement : Multicore

-Maximised RAM

Gaming PC




-Cooling system

Home theater PC



-Specialised chassis

-TV tuner (optional)

Home server PC

-Media streaming capacity

-File sharing

-Print sharing

-Gigabit NIC

-RAID array




Networking Fundamental Edit

For 2 computer to be able to communicate the NIC must agree upon:

  • -The maximum size of the data


  • -The amount of data sent before


  • -Time between transmission
  • -Time to wait before sending


  • -Speed a witch data transmit

RG-8 Thichnet 10base5 solid copper

-Vampire tap

RG-58 A\U Thinnet 10base2        Stranded copper



STP: Sheilded twisted pair

UTP: Unsheilded twisted pair     100m

568A: Standard

-Computer to hub or switch

568B: Crossover

-Hub to hub

-Switch to switch

-Computer to router

SMF: Single mode fiber

MMF: Multimode fiber